Maculopapular rash is a skin issue wherein a person is affected with macules and papules or either of them. When a person’s skin is affected with this condition red rashes may appear on the affected skin region along with numerous small bumps. In kids, the condition manifests itself on palms and sole of feet. The term ‘maculopapular’ is derived from combination of Macules and Papules. There are numerous factors that may result in these rashes. These rashes appear as symptoms those experienced during scarlet fever, heat rashes, hemorrhagic fever, reactions to antibiotics and measles etc.
In each maculopapular rash, there are two elements present, namely papules and macules. To understand maculopapular rashes it is wise to understand these two elements. Papules are tiny round bumps on the skin which usually do not contain fluid. Papules may vary in color ranging from pink to purple or red to brown. Papules are usually symptoms of underlying skin issue. Macules are often characterized by discoloration of skin region that are often less than 1 cm in diameter. These rashes are not depressed neither they are raised. They may appear in any color. Macules may be triggered due to various factors including skin diseases as well as other non-pathological conditions such as hyperpigmentation.
Maculopapular rash – causes
Various factors are recognized as possible trigger for maculopapular rashes. Epstein Barr virus is a virus which causes infection that may lead to these rashes. This infection is highly found in countries such as China and Africa, especially in people diagnosed with cancer. This is often tracked back to animal-virus causing fever and painful blisters on skin. Another primary condition that may cause maculopapular rash may include Syphilis. Under prevalence of this condition rashes may rupture and convert to ulcerative blisters. This irregularity may be painful and patients are often treated using penicillin.
Such rashes may also occur when a person is affected with scabies wherein the dermatologic manifestations are usually itchy and contagious. These rashes with macules and papules may also be recorded in cases of patients suffering from German measles or Rubella. These conditions are benign and may be resolved within 3 days to 4 days. Chikungunya is another medical condition which may possibly result in Maculopapular rashes. Chikungunya is caused by mosquito bites similar to Dengue. Dengue is in fact considered as one of the common primary factors that causes Maculopapular rashes. Fever and pain in the joints are two common symptoms that a person may experience when affected with these rashes. This medical irregularity may be extremely fatal if the level of platelet in decreased. In such a case a person may die due to excessive bleeding.
In HIV Type -1 maculopapular rashes are extremely common thus they are also sometimes referred to as HIV rashes. Apart from these, even general issues such as cholesterol deficiency may also contribute to cause these rashes. Medicinal side effects may also lead to such difficulties. There are certain antibiotic medicines such as Cefobid, Chemotherapy medicines and Cefoperazone etc, which may lead to such dermatologic manifestation.
There are several ways to determine maculopapular rash affliction. One effective way is by looking into medical history of the patient. The doctor may analyze past medical history as well as their onset. The doctor may also physically inspect the affected skin region. If by convention physical examination the condition cannot be confirmed then further tests are suggested. Blood test is one of the common tests that are suggested for patients suffering from such rashes. Other tests may include culture test, syphilis test, pustules test, etc. These tests are performed by medical experts. The patient may also be suggested to under go ENT test, lung test, joint, nerves and genital examination. Tests may also be depended on symptoms of Maculopapular rash.
Diagnosis according to symptoms
Symptoms may sometimes indicate possible cause of the rashes. For example, when these rashes occur on the facial skin then it may have resulted due to viral infection or measles. Sometimes the condition is accompanied with head pain and confusion which may be resulted due to condition called Gonococcemia. Swelling of joint may be caused due to underlying meningococcemia. If these rashes appear with breathing issue, anaphylaxis or pharyngitis then it is possible that it has resulted out of infected urethral drainage.
Treatment for Maculopapular rash
The causes and symptoms of maculopapular rashes are usually considered while determining the treatment. Treatments are often targeted on alleviating symptoms and curing causes to deal with the rashes. If it is diagnosed that the condition is caused due to chikungunya then doctor would usually recommend taking Chloroquine as the first line of treatment. Dengue patients suffering from these rashes are also suggested with oral or intravenous rehydration medicines which would eventually alleviate the rashes. However, in severe cases of dengue blood transfusion may be the last resort. Epstein Barr Virus associated with these rashes are often handled using painkiller. The best treatment for maculopapular rashes can be obtained through a certified doctor.